Beyond Milkweed

Bringing in the Butterflies

Many know the importance of supplying milkweed as a food source for Monarch butterfly caterpillars, but there are other plants you can add to your yard to support other butterfly species.

Zizia aurea in bloom

Eastern Black Swallowtail caterpillars will feast on Zizia aurea. This native perennial has cheerful unbrels of yellow flowers in spring and will grow in full sun or part shade. Eastern Black Swallowtail will also eat dill, parsley, fennel and carrots – if you are willing to share.

The Pearl Crescent relies on our native asters like Symphyotrichum cordifolium (blue wood aster), Symphyotrichum oblongifolium  (aromatic aster), Symphyotrichum laeve (smooth aster), or Symphyotrichum novae-angliae (new england aster). Asters are beautiful flowering plants that also provide late season nectar for butterflies and bees. There are many lovely cultivars to choose from – one to fit almost any garden space.

Antennaria plantaginifolia in bloom

Antennaria plantaginifolia is a food source for the American Painted Lady butterfly . The caterpillars roll the plant’s leaves to make sheltered cocoons. This plant makes an attractive low growing ground cover in sunny, dry well drained places.

Woody plants contribute to butterfly survival too. The Spicebush Swallowtail depends on our native spicebush (Lindera benzoin) and native Sassafras tree (Sassafras albidum). Wild cherry (Prunus serotina) supports Spring and Summer Azure caterpillars and Eastern Tiger Swallowtails. If you grow our native Pawpaw trees (Asimina triloba) not only could you get tasty fruit, you might be lucky enough to see a Zebra Swallowtail.

Great Spangled Fritillary

Having a less than perfect lawn is also a big benefit to butterflies. The Great Spangled Fritillary relies on common violets. Leaving violets in your lawn (or having a patch as a groundcover) is vital to these beautiful butterflies. White clover supports a host of butterflies including the Orange Sulphur, the Gray Hairstreak, the Eastern Tailed Blue and the Clouded Sulphur. It is also a terrific source of nectar and pollen for bees and improves soil by sequestering nitrogen.  

Since some butterflies and moths winter over as caterpillars or chrysalises (and sometimes even as adults) in leaf litter and plant debris, try to wait till the weather warms in spring before doing too much clean up. Wherever possible, leave fallen leaves in place. This will protect hibernating butterflies (as well as other critters) and will provide you with free, nutritious garden mulch – its a win-win.

Eastern Tiger Swallowtail on Tithonia rotundifolia

2 thoughts on “Beyond Milkweed”

  1. I work part time at a garden center and I always tell customers to check out the Master Gardeners web site Delaware Valley Penn state I even talk about your 2nd Saturday classes and your fall festival. Thx U for the great information
    Donnamarie/Media

    Like

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